Quality analysis, Anti-bacterial activity and Chemical Characterization of Ethnobotanical (Hawan) Medicinal Fumes
Supplemental Table1


Air quality
Anti-bacterial activity
Chemical Characterization
Medicinal fumes

How to Cite

Rastogi, V., Swami Krishnanand, Panwar, R. B., Chacko, K. M., Prem, R., Vijay, C., & Agiwal, V. (2022). Quality analysis, Anti-bacterial activity and Chemical Characterization of Ethnobotanical (Hawan) Medicinal Fumes. Interdisciplinary Journal of Yagya Research, 5(1), 01-19. https://doi.org/10.36018/ijyr.v5i1.79


Background: In Vedic literature, the traditional ritual Hawan is said to purify the environment and cure diseases in an eco-friendly way. Previously studies have shown potential of herbal fume for anti-microbial activity as well as for therapeutic purposes along with reduction in the air pollutants post Hawan. However, there was no study which had tested and compared herbal fumes of hawan in control and natural environment for air-quality, anti-bacterial activity and for presence of bio-compounds present in time-dependent manner simultaneously. This work aims to evaluate air quality of hawan and simultaneously evaluate bio-compounds present in it to find its potential for integrative medicine. This work aims to investigate its efficacy in air purification and potential application in modern integrative medicine. Methods: Chambers for performing Hawan under natural and controlled experimental conditions were constructed. Hawan was performed for 30min in a chamber. Chamber air and Hawan herbal fumes were sampled before, during (30 min) and at end (24-72 hours) to find viable bacterial load of air, chemical bio-actives (phyto-constituents), and air quality markers (gases and pollutants) by standard techniques and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis along with analysis of pyrolysed hawan herbal fumes and Hawan ingredients. OneWay ANOVA with post hoc analysis by Tukey’s test was performed for comparison of air quality parameters during different experiments. Results: Transient sharp increase in CO, CO2, NOx levels (albeit within permissible limits) observed during Hawan was followed by decrease below baseline after 24hrs of Hawan in open-door natural conditions. Statistically significant persistent reduction (88-90\%) (p<0.0001) in the viable bacterial count of air compared to control was observed upto ≥72 hours after Hawan, when all pathogenic bacteria present in air were eliminated, leaving few \textit{Bacillus spp.} known to be beneficial for human health. GCMS analysis of Hawan medicinal fumes and pyrolysed Hawan ingredients revealed presence of an array of bioactive compounds known to have antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, air cleansing and nutritional activity and health benefits. Conclusion: Thus, through temporal and simultaneous analysis of Hawan air quality, its anti-microbial activity and phytochemical characterization, the study provided evidence-based-support to multifaceted potential of Hawan as described in ancient literature which can be put to immense use for therapeutic utility in modern time.

Supplemental Table1


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